Applying Maslow’s Hierarchy to Workplace Learning

Applying Maslow’s Hierarchy to Workplace Learning

Creative trainers who apply brain-based learning research to design, develop, and deliver their content recognize that there is more to sharing information with adults than just being a subject matter expert. As a facilitator of adult learning (andragogy), you must also be a student of human nature and understand what motivates learners and how they best gain, retain, recall, and use what they learn. So let’s take look at the idea of Applying Maslow’s Hierarchy to Workplace Learning. Applying Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory of Motivation to Workplace LearningDr. Abraham Maslow studied the workplace motivation of employees in the years following World War II. His research has been referenced and adapted many times over the years. From a workplace learning perspective, you can use the five levels of motivation that Maslow identified to focus your efforts on encouraging learners to accomplish established learning goals and to reward them for successes.

Applying Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory of Motivation to Workplace Learning by The Creative Trainer

The following are the five levels of need (from lowest to highest) in Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs along with ways that you can address each level for your learners. As Maslow stressed, the basic needs must be fulfilled before any other level can be attained because the first level involves basic survival issues.

Basic/Physiological Needs

Maslow realized that people need to deal with survival needs before they move on to any other level of need. If they do not have the necessary food, clothing, water, shelter, and other crucial elements to survive, they are not likely to be concerned about learning new skills to qualify them for future jobs.

Training and development professionals typically address basic needs by providing such things as food and water throughout a session, allowing regular restroom or comfort breaks (at least every 60-90 minutes), and providing an adequate lunch period with nutritious food. They use instructional system design (ISD) strategies to create training programs and class content that add value and that will help learners maintain their current jobs and ultimately move on to higher-paying ones that will increase the amount of money they have available to satisfy basic needs.

Safety or Security

To address this level of the hierarchy, you must consider physical as well as psychological safety and security.

As a workplace learning professional you can do common sense things like making sure that the environment contains no safety hazards, such as equipment wires that are not taped down, broken furniture, boxes that can cause accidents or equipment that might fall and injure someone.

You can also provide mental security by stressing that the learning environment is a “safe” area in which they should feel free to ask questions, offer ideas, disagree, and explore issues that they have related to the topic without the feeling of intimidation, embarrassment or that someone will report back to their boss or human resources (assuming information disclosed does not violate policy or law or is not threatening). Also, explain how the material covered will assist learners to become more effective and efficient in the workplace or other situations, thereby helping to solidify their position in the organization as a knowledgeable, skilled employee or individual.

Social/Belonging

This level of Maslow’s theory deals with love, acceptance, friendship, and companionship. As a workplace learning professional or facilitator you can address the need that many people have to socialize and feel part of a group by designing programs that have a number of opportunities for participants to interact with you and other learners. You can also include a networking period before or after training or class or have a group luncheon where learners can share ideas and commune. This might even be a “working lunch” in which participants are given assignments to find out things about others in the group to solve problems.

There are literally hundreds of books and articles available to offer training activities that can help get participants actively engaged, networking, and brainstorming ideas during a learning event.

Esteem/Self-Esteem

When people are at this point of Maslow’s hierarchy, they are focused on personal ego, what others think of them, self-respect, achievement, and receiving recognition for efforts given. Most people want to be respected and appreciated by others.

In a learning environment, you can address the esteem/self-esteem need by deferring to someone’s expertise or knowledge, recognizing accomplishments, and otherwise providing an environment where learners can feel the satisfaction of having others applaud accomplishments. You can also build in little accolades during training in which participants cheer or applaud the efforts of someone who accomplishes something, offers a solution, or otherwise does something worthy or group recognition. A simple round of applause for a good response might be appropriate from time-to-time to meet this need.

Self-Actualization

This is what the old U.S. Army slogan of “Be all you can be” was all about several years ago. Their premise was “Join us and we will provide you with the tools and support to reach your maximum potential.” To this end, as a workplace learning professional, you must identify what motivates adult learners and where they hope to go as it relates to the level of achievement in your sessions. Then, help them get there. This can be done through instruction, coaching, mentoring, and providing tools and resources to allow them to succeed in implementing what they have learned in training on the job.

The key to successfully applying Maslow’s theory or any other motivation concept is to remember that what motivates one person does not necessarily motivate another. In fact, some motivators might actually de-motivate an adult learner.

Consider all learners when designing and using strategies in your sessions. Make sure that you provide a wide spectrum of rewards, incentives, and opportunities so that you appeal to all levels of learning need.

For more ideas on how to address learner needs and build in elements related to brain-based learning research, get a copy of Training Workshop Essentials: Designing, Developing, and Delivering Learning Events That Get Results and The Creative Training Idea Book: Inspired Tips and Techniques for Engaging and Effective Learning.

The Trainer’s Role in the Adult Learning Environment

The Trainer’s Role in the Adult Learning Environment

Your role as a facilitator of knowledge exchange is to ensure that your adult learners “get it.” Anything less means that you failed to meet their learning needs. You can have all the knowledge in the world between your ears; however, if you cannot effectively communicate it in a way that allows your learners to “gain it, retain it, recognize and recall it and use it,” they will likely leave the room feeling cheated.

The Trainer's Role in the Adult Learning Environment

To ensure that there is a transfer of learning from you to learners during training, and ultimately to the workplace, you must act as a conduit in the knowledge exchange process. Your challenge is to make everything you do learner-centered since your participants are the only purpose for your being there. Without your learners, you are not needed in the learning environment. To accomplish all this, actively engage learners from the beginning of the session or workshop and continue to do so at various points throughout the session. Give them information, let them experience and apply it, and then review the information or concepts periodically.

The key to effective learning is to not only provide information but also show participants how to apply it outside the classroom. Do not assume that they will get it on their own since they might be distracted, confused by your approach or explanation, or simply may not understand a key point. Give examples, build in activities where they can discuss and process information (small group discussion, problem-solving, role-play, demonstrations, and open-ended question forums) to draw them in and verify that they grasp your meaning.

Above all, when you design and deliver information, apply brain-based learning concepts such as motion, novelty, sound/music, color, and engagement to maximize learning potential.

The Trainer’s Role in the Adult Learning Environment by The Creative Trainer – Robert W. Lucas, Awarding Winning Author, and Blogger

For additional ideas on how to effectively design brain-based learning events, actively engage learners and reinforce key concepts while helping ensure positive learning outcomes and transfer of learning, get copies of Training Workshop Essentials: Designing, Developing and Delivering Learning Events That Get Results, The Creative Training Idea Book: Inspired Tips and Techniques for Engaging and Effective Learning, and Energize Your Training: Creative Techniques to Engage Learners.

Creativity Quote – Maya Angelou

Creativity Quote – Maya Angelou

Adding brain-based learning strategies into training sessions by engaging your creativity in the design, development, and delivery of program content is a perfect way to engage adult learners.

Many trainers and adult educators shy away from building in activities, games, novelty, and other fun factors for fear that they might be seen as frivolous or a waste of time. The key is to ensure that everything that you use, do, or say in your session has a purpose and is focused on accomplishing stated learning objectives.

Creativity Quote – Maya Angelou by The Creative Trainer – Robert W. Lucas, Awarding Winning Author, and Training Industry Blogger

I have been using accelerated or active learning strategies and sharing ideas with other trainers and adult educators in professional development programs for over four decades will success. Using such elements not only engages learners and makes the program content more fulfilling for them, but it also keeps me mentally alert and engaged as I design new processes and monitor their outcome in the classroom.

As Maya Angelou said:Creativity Quote - Maya Angelou

For ideas and strategies on ways to use creativity in you adult learning sessions through the application of brain-based and adult learning research get copies of The Creative Trainer: Inspired Tips and Techniques for Engaging and Effective Learning; The Big Book of Flip Charts: A Comprehensive Guide for Presenters, Trainers, and Team Facilitators; Energize Your Training: Creative Techniques to Engage Learners; and Creative Learning: Activities and Games That Really Engage People.

Learn This Adult Learning Blogger – Robert W. Lucas

Robert W. Lucas is an internationally-known author and learning and performance expert. He specializes in workplace performance-based training and consulting services. Furthermore, he has four decades of experience in human resources development, management, and customer service in a variety of organizational environments. Robert Lucas was the 1995 and 2011 President of the Central Florida Chapter of the American Society for Training and Development (ASTD).

Robert W. Lucas has lived, traveled, and worked in 28 different countries and geographic areas. During the past 40 years, Bob has shared his knowledge with workplace professionals from hundreds of organizations, such as Webster University, AAA, Orange County Clerk of Courts, Walt Disney World, SeaWorld, Martin Marietta, all U.S. military branches, and Wachovia Bank. In addition, Bob has provided consulting and training services to numerous major organizations on a variety of workplace learning topics. To contact Bob visit his website at www.robertwlucas.com or his blog www.thecreativetrainer.com.

Six Factors Affecting Active Learning

Six Factors Affecting Active Learning

Active, brain-based, experiential, and accelerated learning are terms used for training initiatives that involve getting learners to become active participants in your sessions. Various theories and research related to adult learning and brain-based learning indicate that through active involvement, participants become more vested in the session outcomes and are more likely to gain, retain, recall and use what they experience.

Six Factors Affecting Active Learning

Six Factors Affecting Active Learning by The Creative Trainer – Robert W. Lucas, Awarding Winning Adulting Learning Author

Consider the following factors when you sit down to create activities and initiatives that will involve and stimulate your learners.

Audience Makeup.

Ensure that you choose activities and content that are appropriate for the group you will be facilitating. Some activities (e.g. role-play) work best when participants know one another well or are comfortable with one another. Talk to program sponsors and/or participants in advance when possible and before you design your content and activities in order to determine who will comprise your audience.

Participant Knowledge and Experience Levels. 

To successfully build on what learners know, you must first determine current capabilities. You can do this through a training needs assessment process that is part of a standard instructional systems design (ADDIE) process. Also, ensure that the planned activity suits the audience level (e.g. frontline employee, supervisor, manager, or executive). Otherwise, you can easily either intimidate or bore your learners with your planned activities.

Desired Involvement.

Decide how, and to what extent, you want to involve participants. While much self-discovery is possible, you will need to intermingle your own involvement with that of your learners.

Available Time.

One mark of a professional creative trainer is to be able to accomplish established learning objectives and planned activities within the allotted timeframe in a seemingly effortless manner. When selecting activities, ensure that the time limit set is realistic and allows for successful completion and debriefing without intruding on other planned program segments.

Training Venue.

Take care to select a facility that has space and equipment needed to conduct planned activities. When possible, actually visit the site so that you can visualize layout and activities. Also, talk to the people who will do the room set up for the session to ensure that they understand your needs. Do not count on a third-party relaying your needs to setup people.

Group Size.

Choose activities that are appropriate for the size of your audience and ensure that co-facilitators are planned if necessary.

If you effectively plan and oversee the activity process, chances are that learners will feel a sense of accomplishment and that learning will more likely occur.

Learn This Blogger – Robert W. Lucas

Robert W. Lucas is an internationally-known author and learning and performance expert. He specializes in workplace performance-based training and consulting services. Furthermore, he has four decades of experience in human resources development, management, and customer service in a variety of organizational environments. Robert Lucas was the 1995 and 2011 President of the Central Florida Chapter of the American Society for Training and Development (ASTD).

Robert W. Lucas has lived, traveled, and worked in 28 different countries and geographic areas. During the past 40 years, Bob has shared his knowledge with workplace professionals from hundreds of organizations, such as Webster University, AAA, Orange County Clerk of Courts, Walt Disney World, SeaWorld, Martin Marietta, all U.S. military branches, and Wachovia Bank. In addition, Bob has provided consulting and training services to numerous major organizations on a variety of workplace learning topics. To contact Bob visit his website at www.robertwlucas.com or his blog www.thecreativetrainer.com.

Three Simple Ways to Engage Adult Learners

Three Simple Ways to Engage Adult Learners

Three Simple Ways to Engage Adult Learners

Adult Learning Theory (andragogy) and brain-based learning research both point to the effectiveness of actively engaging learners in order to maximize learning outcomes in training and adult education environments.

Here are three simple ways to help accomplish interactivity:

  • Divide learners into small groups for activities using creative techniques such as different colored erasers or toys placed at each learner seat to identify which group they will join.
  • Encourage learners to think outside the box when problem-solving or discussing real-life issues during a session.
  • Find different ways to engage learners throughout the session (e.g. brainstorming, discussion groups, nominal group activity, or role-play/simulation). Use multiple approaches during a session to keep participants mentally stimulated and physically engaged.

For creative ideas on learner engagement, applying brain-based learning research to training and educational environments and making your professional development sessions more interactive, get copies of The Creative Training Idea Book: Inspired Tips and Techniques for Engaging and Effective Learning; Energize Your Training: Creative Techniques to Engage Learners; and Creative Learning: Activities and Games That Really Engage People.

Three Simple Ways to Engage Adult Learners by The Creative Trainer – Robert W. Lucas

Robert W. Lucas is an internationally-known author and learning and performance expert. He specializes in workplace performance-based training and consulting services. Furthermore, he has four decades of experience in human resources development, management, and customer service in a variety of organizational environments. Robert Lucas was the 1995 and 2011 President of the Central Florida Chapter of the American Society for Training and Development (ASTD).

Robert W. Lucas has lived, traveled, and worked in 28 different countries and geographic areas. During the past 40 years, Bob has shared his knowledge with workplace professionals from hundreds of organizations, such as Webster University, AAA, Orange County Clerk of Courts, Walt Disney World, SeaWorld, Martin Marietta, all U.S. military branches, and Wachovia Bank. In addition, Bob has provided consulting and training services to numerous major organizations on a variety of workplace learning topics. To contact Bob visit his website at www.robertwlucas.com or his blog www.thecreativetrainer.com.

What is Adult Learning?

What is Adult Learning?

What is Adult Learning?

So what is Adult Learning exactly? Here is the answer – dictionaries define learning as an act, process, or experience of gaining knowledge or skill(s). This action can occur in different environments or settings (e.g. school, professional development workshops, self-study, or technology-based).

Since gaining new knowledge and skill involves change or modification of behavior through experience or conditioning, learning development professionals and adult educators should continually strive to seek out new and innovative learning techniques.

Approaches chosen to facilitate the exchange of information or transfer skills should incorporate the latest in adult learning theory (andragogy) and brain-based learning research. They should incorporate a variety of sensory stimulation to appeal to all human senses, actively engage learners, and help create a stimulating environment through the use of such elements as, color, sound, music, motion, movement, novelty, light, and fun.

Defining Adult Learning by The Creative Trainer – Robert W. Lucas, Awarding Winning Brain-Based Adult Creative Training Author

For creative ideas and strategies for developing learning environments that have the potential to maximize adult learning and support the transfer for knowledge and skills to the workplace, get copies of The Creative Training Idea Books: Inspired Strategies for Engaging and Effective Learning; Energize Your Training: Creative Techniques That Engage Learners and Training Workshop Essentials: Designing, Developing and Delivering Learning Events That Get Results.

About This Blogger – Robert W. Lucas

Robert W. Lucas is an internationally-known author and learning and performance expert. He specializes in workplace performance-based training and consulting services. Furthermore, he has four decades of experience in human resources development, management, and customer service in a variety of organizational environments. Further, Robert Lucas was the 1995 and 2011 President of the Central Florida Chapter of the American Society for Training and Development (ASTD).

Robert W. Lucas has lived, traveled, and worked in 28 different countries and geographic areas. During the past 40 years, Bob has shared his knowledge with workplace professionals from hundreds of organizations, such as Webster University, AAA, Orange County Clerk of Courts, Walt Disney World, SeaWorld, Martin Marietta, all U.S. military branches, and Wachovia Bank. In addition, Bob has provided consulting and training services to numerous major organizations on a variety of workplace learning topics. To contact Bob visit his website at www.robertwlucas.com or his blog www.thecreativetrainer.com.

Three Ways That Adults Learners Differ from Children in the Classroom

Three Ways That Adults Learners Differ from Children in the Classroom

Research into how adult learners most effectively benefit from training content has been going on for decades. Classic studies by Malcolm Knowles addressed differences between adults and child learners years ago. Subsequent research on how the brain best processes and retains information continues to this day. When you look at all the data from various sources, it becomes clear that while there are some similarities, there are also some distinct differences in the way adults and children learn.

Three Ways That Adults Learners Differ from Children in the Classroom

Three Ways That Adults Learners Differ from Children in the Classroom by The Creative Trainer – Robert W. Lucas

Here are three things to consider when designing and delivering your training and educational events to adults.

1. Adults have a need to know why they should learn something.

Since time is so precious in today’s harried world, you must take the time at the beginning of your workshop to get learner buy-in. You can do this through the discussion of learning objectives that outline key outcomes that learners will take away and be able to apply following the session. Another approach is to tell learners ways in which they can use the information. Remember, this may not be as obvious as you think to some people. For example, in describing three points in this article on how adults differ from child learners to a group of trainers in a train-the-trainer workshop, you could build in an activity in which learners work in small groups to discuss why each of these concepts is important and how they might be used in their own training sessions.

2. Adults have a need to be self-directing. Unlike children, adults have many life experiences that are used to make their own decisions.

For this reason, they typically expect that they will have some degree of control over their life situations and be responsible for the decisions they make. Use this concept to build problem-solving and decision-making activities into your workshop and to allow plenty of opportunities for participants to respond to and ask questions. For example, in your workshop, make sure that there is ample time for learners to work in small groups on topic-related issues. When forming groups, ask or assign group leaders to keep track of time, control group direction, and act as a spokesperson during an activity debrief at the end.

3. Adults have a greater volume and different quality of life experience than children do.

Because of their life experiences, adult learners will bring new ideas, skills, and questions to your workshop environment. This can be a double-edged sword:

On the positive side, you can tap into their previous knowledge and experience to add more meaning and real-world flavor to the content that you provide. When conducting adult learning sessions, we participants as coaches, experts, leaders, and co-presenters at various points based on their expertise level.

On the negative side, some people may be more challenging or pessimistic about ideas that you present because of their previous learning and knowledge. You can counter the latter by being thoroughly prepared, having a sound understanding of how to deal with different participant behavior, and maintaining a non-defensive posture when questions do arise.

For example, to bring learners together and tap into their expertise, try doing an icebreaker activity at the beginning of the workshop in which learners exchange information and identify what they believe are their strengths and weaknesses related to the topic to be presented. Use this information to pair people in the session so that an exchange of ideas and coaching can occur. This allows more knowledgeable people to feel productive, valued, and important, while those needing information gain a new resource and possibly bond with another learner.

Like any other learning event, the key to a successful session is to be prepared for your audience’s needs based on a sound needs assessment.

For more ideas on how to maximize training outcomes with adult learners, get copies of Training Workshop Essentials: Designing, Developing, and Delivering Learning Events That Get Results and The Creative Training Idea Book: Inspired Tips and techniques for Engaging and Effective Learning.

Release Your Creativity in the Classroom

Release Your Creativity in the Classroom

I have been researching and using creative training strategies and techniques for the past three decades and I continue to marvel at the new ideas that surface from my peers. With all the research into brain functioning and implementation of technology as a learning tool, creative strategies continue to surface daily. If you search the Internet or sites like Amazon and Barnes and Noble, you will find thousands of articles, blogs (such as this one), publications, and video/audio products that can provide useful and thought-provoking ideas to enhance your learning environments.

Release Your Creativity in the Classroom

Some useful resources follow. They can aid in your search for new games, activities, and creative strategies to help engage participants and increase the opportunity for learning to occur.

Release Your Creativity in the Classroom by The Creative Trainer – Robert W. Lucas, Awarding Winning Training Industry Author

YouTube videos under categories such as brain-based learning, creative training, creative learning, creativity, and adult learning.

Google search for terms such as brain-based learning, creative training, creative trainer, and creativity in the classroom. Some of the listings you will find involve educational settings for children, but ideas and techniques can be modified to suit adult learners in many instances. Just put on your creative thinking hat!

Amazon or Barnes and Noble search for books on brain-based learning, creative training (strategies, techniques, ideas, etc), creative thinking, adult learning/andragogy, accelerated learning, icebreakers, training games/activities, and related topics.  Keep in mind that you sometimes have to switch words around to find what you are looking for. For example, “Creativity in training” and “Trainer creativity” searches result in different listings.

For additional creative ideas to enhance your learning environment, get copies of The Creative Trainer Idea Book: Inspired Tips and Techniques for Engaging and Effective Learning, Energize Your Training: Creative Techniques to Engage Learners, The Big Book of Flip Charts: A Comprehensive Guide for Presenters, Trainers, and Team Facilitators, and Creative Learning: Activities and Games That Really Engage People.

Using Active Learning Strategies to Increase Attention Span

Using Active Learning Strategies to Increase Attention Span

There are many ways to spark excitement and enthusiasm in your sessions. Take the time to search out and develop active or experiential learning strategies and techniques that are innovative and require learners to think while they have fun and enjoy their experience.

Using Active Learning Strategies to Increase Attention Span

 

Here are five ways that you can potentially gain and hold learner attention and help stimulate enthusiasm in your classroom.

Be enthusiastic about your facilitation.

Through your own interest and excitement, you can engage and stimulate learners.

Plan and deliver activities that add value.

Your goal is the overall accomplishment of learning objectives. Do not add activities just because they are fun. Make sure that anything you do in your programs is relevant to session content and aids learning.

Ensure that initiatives are well organized.

Take time to prepare and practice before learners arrive.

Clearly and concisely deliver directions.

To ensure that participants get the maximum benefit from all activity in a session, take the time to explain what learners are to do.

Since a majority of your participants will likely be visual learners, provide the instructions in written form via a handout or on a flip chart or slide. This allows them to refer back to the instructions during the activity.

Communicate the purpose and AVAR-FM of the activity.

Always explain the AVARFM (Added Value And Results For Me) to participants so that they feel the time spent on an activity will be valuable to them personally. It is crucial that learners have the value of what they are doing explained so that they will understand potential benefits. Making an assumption that the objective of an activity should be obvious could be a serious mistake. Remember that adults learn and process information differently.

For more ideas and strategies on engaging learners and increasing learning effectiveness, get a copy of The Creative Training Idea Book: Inspired Tips and Techniques for Engaging and Effective Learning.

Using Active Learning Strategies to Increase Attention Span by The Creative Trainer – Robert W. Lucas, Awarding Winning Author, and Training Industry Blogger

Robert W. Lucas is an internationally-known author and learning and performance expert. He specializes in workplace performance-based training and consulting services. Furthermore, he has four decades of experience in human resources development, management, and customer service in a variety of organizational environments. Robert Lucas was the 1995 and 2011 President of the Central Florida Chapter of the American Society for Training and Development (ASTD).

Robert W. Lucas has lived, traveled, and worked in 28 different countries and geographic areas. During the past 40 years, Bob has shared his knowledge with workplace professionals from hundreds of organizations, such as Webster University, AAA, Orange County Clerk of Courts, Walt Disney World, SeaWorld, Martin Marietta, all U.S. military branches, and Wachovia Bank. In addition, Bob has provided consulting and training services to numerous major organizations on a variety of workplace learning topics. To contact Bob visit his website at www.robertwlucas.com or his blog www.thecreativetrainer.com.

Learning Quote – John Seely Brown

Learning Quote - John Seely Brown

Learning Quote – John Seely Brown

Adult learning theory (andragogy) and brain-based learning research point to the potential for maximizing learning in training sessions. Therefore by creating an environment in which learners become active participants. Instead of being a facilitator who is a subject matter expert and attempts to be the “sage on the stage;” take a more participant-focused approach.  Rather than trying to dump all your knowledge on learners; interactively share what you know with them.

Learning Quote – John Seely Brown by The Creative Trainer – Robert W. Lucas, Awarding Winning Author, and Creative Training Expert

By allowing participants to actively engage in the learning process, you provide the opportunity for them to relate current knowledge with new content. This allows them to potentially experience more of those important “ah-ha” moments when they get the point and see how to transfer their new knowledge back to the workplace.

Learn This Blogger – Robert W. Lucas

Robert W. Lucas is an internationally-known author and learning and performance expert. He specializes in workplace performance-based training and consulting services. Furthermore, he has four decades of experience in human resources development, management, and customer service in a variety of organizational environments. Robert Lucas was the 1995 and 2011 President of the Central Florida Chapter of the American Society for Training and Development (ASTD).

Robert W. Lucas has lived, traveled, and worked in 28 different countries and geographic areas. During the past 40 years, Bob has shared his knowledge with workplace professionals from hundreds of organizations. These companies include: Webster University, AAA, Orange County Clerk of Courts, Walt Disney World, SeaWorld, Martin Marietta, all U.S. military branches, and Wachovia Bank. In addition, Bob has provided consulting and training services to numerous major organizations on a variety of workplace learning topics. Lastly, to contact him visit his website at www.robertwlucas.com or his blog www.thecreativetrainer.com.