Using Music and Sound for Learning

Using Music and Sound for Learning

Using music and sound for learning is an easy way to contribute to a more stimulating, brain-based learning environment. Make some noise, introduce sound, and wake up your learner’s brains. You cannot share information and ideas effectively if your session participants are distracted or not focused on you or the task at hand.

To ensure that participants in training programs, classrooms, and other meeting situations are ready to gain, retain, recall and use what will be experienced, take some time to plan how you will gain, regain and hold their attention.

Using Music and Sound for Learning by The Creative Trainer – Robert W. Lucas, Awarding Winning Adult Learning & Training Author

The following are some simple techniques that tie to research on brain-based learning regarding brain stimulation and how the brain and attention works. By applying strategies such as these, you will be able to potentially get participants to stop side conversations, reading materials, daydreaming, and other distracting behaviors and focus their attention on the front of the room. Once they do that, you can share instructions or information related to the topic or task at hand.

Use your voice.

Some people are gifted with a loud, commanding voice that carries throughout any room and can be used to gain the attention of distracted learners. Others have less forceful volume and tone and must depend on alternative methods to refocus participants.  A simple “Let’s get started” or “If I can have your attention” might work for some people but there are other more creative ways to accomplish this desired outcome.

using music and sound for learning
Game Show Themes for Trainers

Use music. 

There has been quite a bit of research and numerous books on how music impacts the brain (e.g. This is Your Brain on Music) and the topic of using music in learning environments (e.g. Top Tunes for Teachers and Training with a Beat). There are even music selections designed for training (e.g. Game Show Themes for Trainers) and learning environments. Such resources tap into the fact that music can evoke emotion, set the tone for a learning environment, and connect with a training topic. The key is to select music that has a relationship to your learning objectives and that helps stimulate the brains of your attendees.

Some of the ways that you might employ music would be to have upbeat music playing as people enter the room. When ready to start your session or you want to end a break and regroup participants, simply turn it off. The silence sends an unspoken message that something just changed and participants instinctively turn their attention toward the front for the room.

You can also use music in the background as learners work in small groups and participate in visioning activities. In such instances, use music without lyrics and that matches the intended pace of the activity. Research indicates that selecting a music beat that closely matches the desired energy level of the activity is best. For example, if you want to have people on their feet and excited, use some upbeat theme song. If your goal is serenity and reflection, you might use a baroque selection.

Using music and sound for learning

Use Noisemakers.

Inexpensive noisemakers are an excellent and creative means of gaining or regaining participant attention. Simply by blowing a whistle, using a musical slide flute, ringing a school or classroom bell, striking a gong, squeezing a squawking chicken, or using some similar device, you add a bit of sound, fun, and novelty to your sessions.

Like anything you do in a learning environment, using music and sound in novel ways during your sessions or meetings is a clever means of gaining and regaining learner attention. The key is to avoid doing anything that is distracting or does not relate to your stated learning objectives.

Learn This Blogger – Robert W. Lucas

Robert W. Lucas is an internationally-known author and learning and performance expert. He specializes in workplace performance-based training and consulting services. Furthermore, he has four decades of experience in human resources development, management, and customer service in a variety of organizational environments. Robert Lucas was the 1995 and 2011 President of the Central Florida Chapter of the American Society for Training and Development (ASTD).

Robert W. Lucas has lived, traveled, and worked in 28 different countries and geographic areas. During the past 40 years, Bob has shared his knowledge with workplace professionals from hundreds of organizations, such as Webster University, AAA, Orange County Clerk of Courts, Walt Disney World, SeaWorld, Martin Marietta, all U.S. military branches, and Wachovia Bank. In addition, Bob has provided consulting and training services to numerous major organizations on a variety of workplace learning topics. To contact Bob visit his website at www.robertwlucas.com or his blog www.thecreativetrainer.com.

Taking a Brain-Based Learning Approach to Training Design and Development

Taking a Brain-Based Learning Approach to Training Design and Development

Using creativity in training to establish a brain-based learning environment is essential for helping learners better gain, retain, recall, and use what they experience. As trainers and educators, you should open your eyes and take an objective look around from time-to-time in order to discover examples, issues, and ideas that can be incorporated into workshops and other learning vehicles. These observations might form the basis of an analogy or story that can help introduce or support a topic in one of your learning sessions. By collecting and assimilating such information and strategies, you will be able to better develop a creative learning environment.

Taking a Brain Based Learning Approach to Training Design and Development

Taking a Brain-Based Learning Approach to Training Design

One strategy that you might consider to identify new material and strategies to enhance your training is to conduct what I call a creativity analysis. By doing so you can often pinpoint issues and items that are important from a values standpoint or that impact various elements within a culture. Such a scan is especially effective if you travel to locations that are outside your own organization, geographic area, or comfort zone.

There are many cultures in various locations throughout the world where people view things differently and approach learning and life from a diverse perspective. They potentially view education and training from a standpoint that is literally foreign to you. These differences can cause challenges for you as a facilitator if they are new to you. They can also provide a learning opportunity and chance to expand your knowledge and grow professionally.

As part of your analysis, consider looking for trends in clothing, transportation, business processes, religious beliefs, and other key aspects of life which might be incorporated or compared to your personal or societal norm. Think of how these elements might serve as a basis for discussion in a session that you design or facilitate.

The following techniques may provide possible material, concepts, or ideas that can be easily integrated into your brain-based training design, training delivery, or learning content in your next training programs:

  • Scan movies, television, or radio programs. Look for ideas, material, or trends related to program content.
  • Evaluate newspapers, advertising, billboards, and professional magazine articles (about related topics/skills). Try to identify potential resources and societal issues.
  • Scrutinize junk email and mail you receive. Through it, determinations about existing resources and what else is being done in the field or on a specific topic can be made.
  • Brainstorm alone or with others. Take some time to evaluate and consider changing what is currently, or has historically been done in programs. To accomplish that, ask the following questions:

(a) What is currently being done which might inhibit or limit participant learning?

(b) What can be expanded to enhance learning?

(c) What is being done to ensure that the knowledge and skills learned in the classroom are transferred to the workplace?

(d) What techniques, strategies, or activities can be combined to increase learning?

(e) What techniques, strategies, props, incentives, or approaches could be substituted for ones currently in use?

(f) How can techniques, strategies, activities, incentives, or props be used in other programs to effective learning?

(g) What steps, processes, or information currently used could be reorganized in a different order to increase effectiveness?

  • Capture ideas. Keep a tape recorder or pen and paper handy at all times (IE By the bed, in the car, on desktop) to capture creative ideas and thoughts as they occur.
  • Take idea excursions. Search for props, incentives, and materials that can be adapted or used for training are everywhere. Go on outings specifically to find new anything that might enhance learning, involve participants, and add sizzle to your programs.

Some possible idea excursion locations to explore and what to look for follow. Do not forget a pen and paper or a tape recorder to capture your ideas.

(a) Toy stores (games, incentives, and props).

(b) Catalog suppliers (toys, games, incentives, props, prizes, software, and music).

(c) Teacher supply stores (incentives, clip art, and craft supplies).

(d) Discount/Clearance or closeout stores (toys, games, incentives, prizes, and admin supplies).

(e) Department stores (toys, incentives, and supplies).

(f) Card/Gift stores (prizes and incentives).

(g) Costumes stores (props and incentives).

(h) Magic shops (props, attention gainers, self-working magic tricks, and incentives).

(i) Flea markets (toys, incentives, prizes, and supplies).

(j) Book stores (incentives, prizes, and reference materials).

(k) Software stores (puzzle software, games, presentation productivity software/clip art).

(l) Party supply stores (noisemakers, incentives, confetti, and themed decorations, props, and supplies).

(m) Specialty shops (varies depending on inventory maintained).

(n) Arts and crafts stores (clip art, poster board, spray adhesive, supplies, and incentives).

  • Contact wholesale suppliers. There are numerous suppliers that can provide creative incentives, materials, programs, and products which can be adapted or used to enhance learning. Once you set up a commercial account with them, you get access to their catalog of products at discounted prices.

There is no limit to what you can adapt and use in your learning events. You are limited only by your imagination. Identify your program content and a theme to go with it, then search for items that can help make the content come alive and remain memorable to your learners.

Taking a Brain Based Learning Approach to Training Design and Development

For an encyclopedia of creative ideas and ways to incorporate brain-based learning strategies into your training and adult education programs, consider getting a copy of The Creative Trainer Idea Book: Inspired Tips and Techniques for Engaging and Effective Learning.

Brain-Based Learning Strategies

brain based learning strategies
Robert (Bob) W. Lucas, Author, Facilitator, and Performance consultant

Brain-Based Learning Strategies

In 2013 in June, Robert (Bob) W. Lucas hosted two events for the Metro DC ASTD Chapter in Washington, DC (Tapping the Brain for Learning and Brain-Based Learning Strategies).

The sessions focused on how the brain learns and some of the research that has been done related to applying color, sound, motion, novelty, learner engagement and other strategies to enhance learning environments and potentially increase opportunities for learners to gain, retain, recall and use what they learn.

On the 26th, he provided insights at the chapter’s dinner meeting in a session titled: Tapping the Brain for Learning.  This session explored many ideas, brain-based concepts, and techniques that can be used to enhance virtually any training program or presentation topic.

At the end of the session, and when applying concepts learned, participants were able to:

a.  Facilitate creative training programs and presentations that can help induce behavior change and are FUN.

b.  Identify, make, or obtain inexpensive materials that add spark to training programs and presentations.

c.  Increase interaction with participants.

d.  Review program concepts throughout your sessions in order to get an interim check of learning before the program ends.

e.  Create memorable techniques for adding excitement and sizzle to programs so that participants keep coming back.

Brain-Based Learning Strategies Training – Past Success by Robert W. Lucas

On June 27th, Bob facilitated a one-day workshop titled: Strategies to Make Your Learning Events Sizzle. In this event, participants experienced dozens of creative training techniques based on brain research related to how the brain best learns and retains information. These strategies presented that day were meant to be immediately applied in their own learning events. They covered many training workshop essentials for typing in research to learning.

Bob went on to expand upon some of the ideas addressed in the previous night’s program. Therefore, the additional information through a variety of experiential opportunities in which participants hear about a concept, see it demonstrated and then have an opportunity to try or discuss it. They did also discuss how they might use the strategies to strengthen their own learning events.

At the end of the program, participants were able to:

  • Create training environments that stimulate learning.
  • Incorporate the latest learning brain research into their training design and delivery.
  • Design learning events that result in higher levels of attention and retention.
  • Use techniques and strategies experienced in their own learning events.
  • Add pizzazz and novelty to their learning events.
  • Immediately apply what they learned.

Get Learners Moving with Energizer Training Activities

Get Learners Moving with Energizer Training Activities

By getting your learners up and moving, you increase the blood flow carrying oxygen to their brains and help stimulate the brain neurons while helping make them more alert. That increases their opportunity to learn and retain what they experience through their senses.

Get Learners Moving with Energizer Training Activities by The Creative Trainer – Robert W. Lucas, Awarding Winning Adult Learning & Training Author

Here are some creative energizer training activities to engage you, learners.

Play a Clever Catch Icebreaker

Clever Catch Ice Breaker Ball
Clever Catch Ball Training activity

-This is an easy and effective movement-based activity that introduces participants and prompts them to give interesting information about themselves at the beginning of a session. For this exercise, you’ll need a Clever Catch Ball–a 24-inch inflatable ball that you can find on the Internet or at school supply stores. The balls are available already printed with questions for an array of topics, but you can also use a writeable one.

-Before the session, use wet-erase markers to write questions or other content-related information all over the ball. For example, to open an orientation, communication, or team-building session, you might write, “What makes you decide that something is important in your life?” or “If you knew that you could not fail, what would you do?”

-At the start of training, ask your learners to form a circle and then toss the ball to someone.

-The person who catches the ball gives his or her name and then answers the question that appears under his or her right thumb.

-After answering, the catcher tosses the ball across the circle to another person.

-Play continues until everyone has caught the ball and answered a question once.

Take a Pop-Up Survey

If you want to do a quick survey to determine your learners’ experience or other characteristics, ask learners to “pop up” (stand and then sit) when you ask something pertinent to them. For example, if you ask, “Who has delivered a training program to others?” anyone who has done so stands up, then sits down.

This type of training activity prompts quick physical movement while it gives you (and the other participants) information about the people in the class.

Make Some Noise

Get Learners Moving with Energizer Training Activities

Give each learner some sort of party-type noisemaker–a whistle, a clapper or clacker, a spinner, a cowbell, or whatever you wish.

When you shout out a term or phrase related to a key session topic, everyone who knows the definition jumps up and sounds their noisemakers.

You pick one of them to offer the definition or explain the concept, and everyone else
sits down. Give a small prize or candy for a correct answer.

Repeat the process until all terms have been defined.

Play Verbal Volleyball

To add sound, laughter, movement, and fun to any session, have learners review key concepts through a game of verbal volleyball.

To play it, have learners form pairs and line up facing one another.

When you shout, “Go!” pairs take turns shouting key ideas, concepts, or terms that they’ve learned in the session.

One person in a pair shouts an idea; then her or his partner does the same—or, if nothing comes immediately to mind, shouts “Pass!”

Partners continue this way until neither one can think of another concept.

Learning does not have to be boring. By adding elements such as a bit of novelty, fun, easy magic tricks, movement, and sound, you can enhance the learning environment while engaging learner brains and potentially increasing the opportunity for comprehension and application.

Tapping the Brain for Learning Video Added to YouTube

Bob Lucas
Robert (Bob) W. Lucas, Author, Training and Performance Consultant and Brain-Based Learning Facilitator

Tapping the Brain for Learning Video Added to YouTube

A three-part video that shares a presentation titled Tapping the Brain for Learning by internationally-known author and learning and performance consultant, Robert (Bob) W. Lucas, has been added to YouTube.

Tapping the Brain for Learning Video Added to YouTube by The Creative Trainer – Robert W. Lucas, Awarding Winning Adult Learning & Training Author

In it, Bob addresses topics covered in many of his books on how brain research related to learning can be applied in any adult classroom or training environment energize learners to enhance learning outcomes. To view these three video segments, click this link: Robert (Bob) W. Lucas on YouTube.

Learn This Blogger – Robert W. Lucas

Robert W. Lucas is an internationally-known author and learning and performance expert. He specializes in workplace performance-based training and consulting services. Furthermore, he has four decades of experience in human resources development, management, and customer service in a variety of organizational environments. Robert Lucas was the 1995 and 2011 President of the Central Florida Chapter of the American Society for Training and Development (ASTD).

Robert W. Lucas has lived, traveled, and worked in 28 different countries and geographic areas. During the past 40 years, Bob has shared his knowledge with workplace professionals from hundreds of organizations, such as Webster University, AAA, Orange County Clerk of Courts, Walt Disney World, SeaWorld, Martin Marietta, all U.S. military branches, and Wachovia Bank. In addition, Bob has provided consulting and training services to numerous major organizations on a variety of workplace learning topics. To contact Bob visit his website at www.robertwlucas.com or his blog www.thecreativetrainer.com.

Engaging Adult Learners in the Classroom

Engaging Adult Learners in the Classroom

For learning to occur, engaging adult learners in the classroom is an important aspect of enhancing learning. By getting participants involved in the learning process, you increase the possibility that they assimilate knowledge and use what they learn.

Engagement must start as soon as learners enter the classroom, or before if possible so that they become active participants rather than passive bystanders. This is one of the basic elements of adult learning – people must be involved in the learning process in order to gain, retain, recall, and use what they experience.

Engaging Adult Learners

Unlike children, who often have little intrinsic motivation to be in the classroom and little previous knowledge or experience from which they can extract meaning and assimilate new information, adults typically want to be present and learn. They often seek new knowledge and skills that they can immediately apply on the job or in their life. This difference in learning style has been addressed by Malcolm Knowles and others who have focused on adult learning theory or andragogy and ways to involve adult learners.

Research indicates that long-term memories are formed when multiple senses capture sensory data and the brain assimilates the new information or matches it with existing knowledge. To help accomplish this when you are training adults look for ways to tap into various sensory channels through the use of environmental elements such as color, sound, images, motion, smells, novelty, movement, and physical activity.

Additionally, you can encourage the retention of key concepts and information through the use of repetition. For example, consider building in some form of review activity every 15-20 minutes to hold attention and reinforce what has been shared. By using these interim reviews rather than waiting until the end of a session, you enhance the possibility that your learners will walk away with more useful knowledge and skills.

Engaging Adult Learners in the Classroom by The Creative Trainer – Robert W. Lucas, Awarding Winning Adult Learning & Training Author

Some easy interim review formats include the following:

• Create strips of paper with different key ideas or concepts covered in the session up to that point on each one. Next, place one strip inside small plastic eggs of various colors (the type used in children’s Easter baskets). When you are ready to review, pass around a basket or box with these in it and have volunteers take one egg. Once all eggs are distributed, ask for volunteers to stand, open their egg, and read what is on their strip of paper.

Ask for anyone else in the room to define or explain the idea or concept. Reward the volunteer who answers correctly, then repeat the process until all eggs have been opened. A variation of this is to use various colored balloons placed on the wall before the session and have them retrieved and popped by volunteers for the review. This type of activity involves brain-based learning concepts of fun, novelty, repetition (review), color, sound (if using balloons) movement, and learner engagement.

• When ready to review, have learners turn to another participant and share one key concept learned thus far and how they plan to use it.

Engaging Adult Learners

• Depending on the session topic, use a What if? activity in which, at some point, you have each person take out a piece of paper and write “What If?” at the top of the page. Next have finished the statement with some key ideas or concepts learned in the session that they could immediately apply to their job or life.

• Use a Share the Knowledge review in which you have a volunteer team leader start a piece of paper around their table by first writing one key idea or concept learned up until that point in the session, then passing the paper to their left. Subsequent learners repeat the process until everyone has contributed something. Let them know before starting that it is okay to cheat and look at their notes if they cannot think of something to add.

After everyone has written something have the leader lead a discussion on which item the group believes to me most significant and discuss why they believe this to be true. Allow 5 minutes for this process, then have each team leader share the item their team selected with the rest of the groups. Reward team leaders with a small prize or piece of candy.

Training does not have to be boring or tedious. Think of ways to make your learning events come alive and engage your learners while reinforcing ideas and concepts.

To contact Bob visit his website at www.robertwlucas.com or his blog www.thecreativetrainer.com.

Grouping Learners Using Props

Grouping Learners Using Props

There are many reasons for creatively finding ways to group your participants in a learning environment. Many of them relate to the concepts of brain-based learning which emphasizes factors such as novelty, fun, and movement to stimulate brain neurons in order to enhance learning.

To make your life easier and save time when trying to come up with creative ways to effectively organize participants into small groups, try using small toys or props. Simply decide some item related to your session theme and gather an equal number of various colors or types of the toy or prop to use in identifying team members.

Grouping Learners Using Props by The Creative Trainer – Robert W. Lucas, Awarding Winning Adult Learning & Training Author

To use any type of item for identifying group members, count the total number of people in the room, divide equally based on the number of groups you desire for an activity or discussion, and then select an equal number of different colored or shaped toys or props. Randomly place one item at each learner’s seat location before they arrive. When ready to group them, just announce where they should gather for a group based on the type or color item they were given. For example, if you were doing a train-the-trainer program focused on brain-based learning, you might use a small colored rubber brain-shaped pencil erasers. People with yellow brains would go to one corner, blue, another, and so on.

Here are some suggestions that may help get you started.

  • Different denominations of play currency or coins are effective for a bank teller or cashier training;
  • Brain erasers of different colors can be used in train-the-trainer or creativity sessions;
  • Various colored smile faced items can be used for customer service programs or virtually any other topic. For example, stuffed animals, hacky sacks, or foam balls;
  • Colored fish exemplify successful programs/projects when things are “swimming along”;
  • Foam stress toys in shapes related to your session topic (e.g. cell phone for telephone skills training or smile face balls for customer service training);
  • Assorted zoo animals can add fun to virtually any subject or when discussing stress or a high energy topic when things are hectic (e.g. It’s a zoo around here);
  • Assorted insects or bugs help in activities when discussing pet peeves or things that “bug” participants either in customer interactions, or the workplace;
  • Colored spinning tops made of plastic can emphasize high sales or improvement levels (on top of the world);
  • Back scratchers made of wood or plastic can be related to ways of “reaching or attaining a goal”;
  • Sheriff’s/Law enforcement badges can be tied into concepts of taking charge, authority or ownership of an issue;
  • Rubber ducks made of rubber or plastic might be used to remind people that sometimes things are not always what they are “quacked up” to be (when discussing problems or how things can go wrong in a specific situation);
  • Handheld novelty shaped pencil sharpeners can stress the need to point out the need to ask direct questions or “get to the point” when doing customer service or interpersonal communication program;
  • Footballs, baseballs, sponge balls, or similar small items may help emphasize teamwork or “getting on the ball.”

These simple, yet fun approaches to group formation can get people laughing and be a novel way to save time rather than the traditional “count off” method that many trainers and educators often use.

Tying Adult Learning Theory to Brain Based Learning Research

Tying Adult Learning Theory to Brain-Based Learning Research

Since the first part of this year, I have been conducting a lot of workshops and presentations on creative training techniques and brain-based learning for adults. Frequently attendees ask questions related to adult learning and what strategies or techniques work best to help their participants better gain, retain, recall, and use what they experience. Invariably, the answer comes back to how the type of learning environment you set for your participants.

Tapping the Brain for LearningTying Adult Learning Theory to Brain-Based Learning Research by The Creative Trainer – Robert W. Lucas, Awarding Winning Adult Learning & Training Author

For decades, neuroscientists, psychologists, and cognitive scientists have explored the intricacies of the human brain in an attempt to learn what happens when various stimuli are introduced into a learner’s environment. Since many elements can impact brain functioning and stimulate brain neurons it is sometimes easier to look at some things that researchers have found related to adult learners.

Here are four things to know about adult learners that might assist you when you are designing and delivering content for your participants:

#1 Adults want to know how what they learn will help them personally and/or in the workplace.

Presenting theory will not work with today’s adult learners. Because information is so readily available in today’s world and training time is often limited, adult learners want to quickly understand what they will gain from attendance at your session and how they will be able to apply it. If you cannot explain or demonstrate how they will immediately be able to use information, strategies, and techniques, you are likely to lose their interest.

#2 Adults tend to self-sufficient.

Typically, you will encounter participants who come to the learning event with a wide array of experience, knowledge, and competencies. As a result, they do not want to be told what, when, and how they will learn. Instead, they want information shared and have an opportunity to be actively engaged in the process and experience the learning on individual levels.

#3 Adults want to feel ownership of the learning process.

To accomplish this, it is good to build in opportunities where they can mold the approach to learning in their own way. As you design your sessions, address the needs or learning modalities of visual, auditory, and kinesthetic learners by adding activities in which learners experience “ah-ha” moments about content as they jointly explore the who, what, when, how, and why of information they are receiving.

#4 Adults want to have an enjoyable learning experience.

Life is stressful enough without having to sit through some painful learning experience in which rote memory or tedious activities are involved. During the learning process, you have to build in interesting, interactive, and sensory-oriented strategies and techniques (e.g. music, magic, games, puzzles, and other FUN elements). These help your learners’ brains release dopamine, which stimulates the pre-frontal cortex to aid attention and long-term memory, and endorphins, which come from laughter and pleasurable experiences and help participants feel good about their learning.

Ultimately, your goal should be to treat adult learners as partners in the learning process and allow them ample opportunity to become fully engaged throughout the event.

Applying Brain-Based Learning Research to the Learning Environment

Applying Brain-Based Learning Research to the Learning Environment

Training and education professionals are always looking for new ways to creatively share concepts and information with their learners. Unfortunately, there is no one strategy that will turn classroom learning events into the utopia that trainers and adult educators strive for — 100 percent success related to the participant and student acquisition and retention of everything to which they are exposed. This is why they know that using a variety of strategies and changing their tools and routine regularly is crucial for learning success in the classroom.

Applying Brain-Based Learning Research to the Learning Environment by The Creative Trainer - Robert W. Lucas, Awarding Winning Adult Learning AuthorApplying Brain-Based Learning Research to the Learning Environment by The Creative Trainer – Robert W. Lucas, Awarding Winning Adult Learning Author

Luckily, there are exciting neuroscientific studies and continued developments in cognitive psychology related to learning going on that can help. Some of the research completed thus far certainly points to opportunities for application in the classroom even though it is ongoing and there is widespread discussion about the applicability to education and training. One thing that seems to have surfaced is that the classroom environment is certainly a major factor in learning. Still, the human brain far too complex to categorically state that by doing this or that, you will end up with a specific result so much more needs to be explored.

What seems to be obvious to numerous researchers is that certain classroom elements can potentially aid learning and long-term memory development. Many trainers and adult educators are realizing that they can apply lessons learned by the neuroscientists to their classrooms.

For example, through the use of environmental elements such as color, sound, motion, light, and smells and the addition of other factors like engagement, novelty, and fun to the classroom, participants potentially better gain, retain, recall and use what they experience. This is because these factors have been shown to impact brain neuron stimulation which aids memory formation and the ability to later recall and use what was learned.